Thomas Seebeck discovered in 1821 that when two wires composed of dissimilar metals are joined at both ends and one of the ends is heated, there is a continuous current which flows in the thermoelectric circuit. (Seebeck effect). The junctions can be exposed, grounded or ungrounded. The thermocouple is normally directly connected to a standard temperature controller. Thermocouples are among the easiest temperature sensors used in science and industry and very cost effective. (usually less than $ 50.00) Most of the thermocouples are custom made with lead times of 24hrs if needed.
Other elements in a closed loop heating cycle:
A couple important things: